Wood bending by steam heating has been known since ancient times. Typical examples of traditional steam bending are the application of planks for ship planking, stick handles and Thonet chairs. Steam bending requires a high degree of craftsman skills due to the fact that bending has to take place right after steaming while the wood is still hot. For instance, the rear legs of a Thonet chair have to be bent within a few minute after the wood has been removed from the steam chamber. For years, research has been carried on in order to find other and better methods for industrial bending of solid wood and the decisive breakthrough came in 1988 with the compression machine.
Compressed bendable hardwood is produced and used in the following way:
Up to 3000 mm long and 80 x 120 mm cross section, sawn and planed planks of hardwood are heated and plastified and then compressed approximately 80% of the original length in a hydraulic compression machine. All axial fibre cell walls have been cross folded and the solid wood can be bent. The compressed planks can be either stored cold or worked with right away. The traditional steam bending technique demands instant bending of the wood while it is still hot. Compressed wood, however, does not need to be heated before bending, which provides with the possibility to execute the bending right on the spot. On the pictures below you can see how the structure of the wood is changed during the compressing process.
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